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The Art of Michael Bedard

Home | Search | Now Playing | News | My Movies | Games | Boards | Help | US Movie Showtimes | Top 250 | Register | Recommendations | Box Office | Index | Trailers | IMDbPro - Free Trial | IMDb Publicity PhotosHome | Contact Us | HelpEpinions has the best comparison shopping information on Sitting Ducks: Season 1 Quack Pack. Compare prices from across the web and read reviews from other consumers on Sitting Ducks: Season 1 Quack Pack before you decide to buy.Salman RushdieHaroun and the Sea of Stories (1990)Bedard first entered the art marketplace in 1977 with a series of strange and bizarre art prints-many of which are still in print today. He has consistently topped the list of best selling posterists for nearly twenty years. Almost no other artist can make that claim.Directed byBobby FarrellyPeter FarrellyAndie MacDowellArt Prints, Posters. High quality art prints, posters, photos, celebrity posters and custom print framing from Easyart Anne HeywoodHogarth Picture Gallery - A small collection of sports,landscapes and natural history photographs.Suzuki Flute School, Piano Accompaniments Volume 6 2003 Universal Studios. All Rights Reserved.Do not duplicate or redistribute in any form.Terms of Use Privacy PolicyThus, the results of our Monte-Carlo simulation indicate that a mechanism of natural selection, similar to the one that has driven the subsequent biological evolution, could have been responsible for the primordial polymerization. It seems quite unlikely that the extremely effective UV-quenching by all five major nucleobases is just incidental. Accordingly, one can assume that these bases had been selected to perform the UV-protecting function before they became involved in the maintenance and transfer of genetic information. This assumption provides a physically plausible rationale for the primordial enrichment in oligonucleotide-like compounds and also sheds new light on the earliest steps of evolution.It is worth noting the following points:(i) In the UV-illuminated primordial world the probability of a UV-breakage was more than real for any compound. Correspondingly, those that succeeded to bind (trap) a UV-quencher got a selective advantage. In the case of nitrogenous bases, the photo-generated radicals of the latter could even provide the energy needed to bind the UV-protector.(ii) The oligomerization, most probably inorganic template-guided (see ref. [10] for a comprehensive consideration of this point), further increased the degree of the UV-protection because then each UV-trap could protect several neighbouring backbone bonds. The minerals considered as potential primordial templates (see ref. [10] for their survey) are characterized by meshes of positively charged metal ions, so that a prospective oligomer unit required a negatively charged template-binding group (phosphate was the natural choice [10]) and a spacer region needed to fit into the lattice of positively charges at the template. The pentose groups are apt spacers as long as aluminosilicate clays indeed catalyse the formation of long oligonucleotides [14-16].(iii) In this sugar-phosphate-centric world the nitrogenous bases served just as protecting units, so that the UV-quenching capacity but not their exact chemical nature was important. Accordingly, these service units were replaceable and variable. Exactly this variability could have paved the way to the variability of the future genomes.(iv) In general, the increase in the fraction of double-stranded regions elevates the resistance of RNA backbone to UV-damage [25], as well as to hydrolysis [26]. Correspondingly, an occasional formation of double-stranded segments in primordial RNA-like polymers elevated, as it has been already discussed [26], the probability of their survival. Hence the survival, apparently, depended on the ability of chosen UV-protectors to form pairs.(v) Replication, most probably also initially template-guided [10], could have evolved as a process that just selected for more photostable biopolymers. Indeed, the first replication event, i.e. formation of a polynucleotide strand using another one as a template, could not be driven by the reproduction needs (the chicken and egg paradox). Replication could be, however, promoted by the simple fact that the UV-resistance of two interacting polynucleotide strands was higher than that of single strands.The suggested mechanism turns the high UV levels on primordial Earth from a perceived obstacle to the origin of life (see e.g. ref. [19]) into the selective factor that, in fact, might drive the whole process. Indeed, biochemical condensation reactions proceed with release of water, so that the presence of latter favors hydrolysis of biological polymers. Because of this feature, Bernal [27] and many researchers after him (as reviewed in ref. [10]) advanced the view that life has begun in tidal regions, so that condensation of primordial monomers proceeded under fluctuating conditions where the wet periods, enabling the exchange of reagents, alternated with dry ones, favoring the condensation reactions. The awareness of the potential danger of the UV damage, however, prompted other scientists to invoke a UV-protecting water layer (see e.g. ref. [19]), which apparently would impede the condensation reactions. More recently, several authors even moved the point of the life origin to the bottom of the ocean, where the reducing power of minerals and/or of hydrothermal vents was considered to be the energy source for the first condensation events [28,29]. It remained unexplained, though, how inorganic reductants could drive primordial condensation reactions in water in the absence of enzymes (see the discussion in refs. [30,31]).In a sense, the absence of a consensus on a plausible mechanism for the origin and accumulation of the first RNA-like molecules has significantly hurt the development in the whole field and stimulated proliferation of the Panspermia hypothesis, not to mention various kinds of creationist ideas. It appears that our consideration of the UV irradiation as a positive, selective factor in primordial evolution may suggest a way out of the dead end. This view allows to place the cradle of life onto the sun-illuminated (semi)dry surface of the ancient Earth, as originally considered by Bernal [27]. Indeed, no other known energy source could compete with the UV component of the solar irradiation either in ability to serve simultaneously as both selective and driving force, or in continuity, strength, and access to the whole surface of Earth.We believe that the ideas discussed above could eventually be tested experimentally. On one hand, nucleotides could be formed from simpler compounds under conditions of UV-irradiation [7,8]. On the other hand, the ability of aluminosilicate clays to catalyze their polymerization was demonstrated [14-16]. Thus it seems very promising to try obtaining oligonucleotides from simpler compounds in a reactor system, which (i) uses UV-irradiation as a selective force and an energy source and (ii) contains aluminosilicate clays as a polymerization template.Duck Soup28 by 24 Art Print 26.99ordering | mounted | framedGreat White Hype31 by 27 Art Print 26.99ordering | mounted | framedLiving Together20 by 26 Art Print 22.50ordering | mounted | framed- Help DirectoryThe Realistic Wildlife Art of Wes & Rachelle Siegrist - Realistic paintings, miniatures and reproductions of wildlife including gamebirds, songbirds, mammals, butterflies and birds of prey. [100 items] [Wholesale & Retail] [Ship From: US To: Worldwide] [Since 1988] [Secure ordering] (31081 503)* If shown, click on the literary agent's name for full contact details and links to all the Playwrights they represent.Pocahontas II: Journey to a New Worldchildren's authors, librariansErweiterte Buchsuche



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